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At the center of a tooth is a hollow area that houses soft tissue, known as pulp or nerve. This hollow area contains a relatively wide space in the coronal portion of the tooth called the pulp chamber. This chamber is connected to the tip of the root via narrow canal(s); hence, the term "root canal". Human teeth normally have one to four canals, with teeth toward the back of the mouth having more. These canals run through the center of the roots like pencil lead through the length of a pencil. The pulp receives nutrition through the blood vessels and nerves carry signals back to the brain to warn of adverse events and circumstances.
For many people who experience tooth pain or discomfort, a root canal may be recommended, and a qualified dentist or more preferably an endodontist (root canal therapy specialist) should be consulted in a timely manner.
To cure the infection and save the tooth, the dentist drills into the pulp chamber and removes the infected pulp and then drills the nerve out of the root canal(s) with long needle-shaped drills. After this is done, the dentist fills each of the root canals and the chamber with an inert material and seals up the opening. This procedure is known as root canal therapy